This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). We reply first to messages of greater interest This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). The election results subfield lists percent of vote by party/coalition an . Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Niger and Uganda to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. Several lava flows extend down the flanks of the volcano, made readily visible by prominent cooling ridges along their sides known as flow levees. For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood . With the events transpiring across the globe in the 1930’s, President Roosevelt became concerned about the United States’ deficiencies in the intelligence field. This entry includes three subfields. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. Countries with high budget deficits (relat . . American astronauts used this area in 1965-70 to train for lunar excursions; surrounding the region are the vast sand dune fields of Gran Desierto de Altar. . . This entry includes the chief of mission, chancery address, telephone, FAX, consulate general locations, and consulate locations. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country. Improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: piped water into dwelling, yard, or plot; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; or rainwater collection. Unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: unprotected dug well; unprotected spring; cart with small tank or . This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. The numbers are based on a wide-range of publicly available information. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. . The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time. 35, Col. La Concepción. . Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted. This entry provides a listing of languages spoken in each country and specifies any that are official national or regional languages. Arms acquisition information is an overview of major arms suppliers over a specific period of time, including second-hand arms delivered as aid, with a focus on m . Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. The sovereignty, independence, territory and unity of the federation. Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides. Camino Real a Contreras No. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other gauges are listed under note. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydroca . The World Health Organization estimates that f . Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain). This allowed institutional focus efforts on strengthening the work of collecting, processing and dissemination of strategic intelligence. . Discover the CIA history, mission, vision and values. This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs), or stateless persons. . agencies, including Mexico’s immigration agency, the PGR, the intelligence service (CISEN), the postal service, and customs. This entry gives the number of medical doctors (physicians), including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1,000 of the population. . Before the US had entered WWII, President Roosevelt in January 1941 sent an economic advisor, Lauchlin Currie, to China on an fact finding mission, in anticipation of further Japanese aggression in Asia. Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. . The Chacchoben Maya temple pyramid dates to about AD 700; it was originally painted red and yellow. In response to Japan's aggression in the Pacific, in July 19… The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population chan . This entry is the country's total output of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day). Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Federal government of Mexico Civilian agencies Attorney General of Mexico (PGR) Attorney General's Crime-Combat Planning, Analysis and Information Center ( CENAPI / PGR – Centro de Planeación, Análisis … Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. This entry gives the current bond ratings for a country/territory from the three credit bureaus. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures. This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. routinely respond to questions for which answers are found within this Web site. . Unless otherwise noted, military estimates focus on the major services (army, navy, air force, and where applicable, gendarmeries) and do not account for activated reservists or delineate military service members assigned to joint staffs or defense ministries. It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs. . Rapid population growth can be seen as . The elections subfield includes the dates of the last election and next election. . The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries. It is also one of three volcanic peaks in Mexico - together with Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl - that retain summit glaciers. . (2005–2006): Jaime Domingo López Buitrón (1st term), (2006–2011): Guillermo Valdés Castellanos, (2011–2012): Jaime Domingo López Buitrón (2nd term), This page was last edited on 21 November 2020, at 00:30. The most up-to-date CIA news, press releases, information and more. . Since 2013, Mexico’s economic growth has averaged 2% annually, falling short of private-sector expectations that President PENA NIETO’s sweeping reforms would bolster economic prospects. This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants. Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt. Substantial underemployment might be noted. On the other hand, like all other state institutions, CISEN regime has moved toward accountability increasingly transparent, consistent with the democratic constitutional order in the country, and careful of the peculiarities of the field National Security. One of the smaller step pyramids at the massive archaeological site of Teotihuacan (approximately 40km or 25mi northeast of Mexico City). The judge selection and term of office subfield includes the organizations and associated officials responsible for nominating and appointing j . . This entry is the total amount of crude oil imported, in barrels per day (bbl/day). Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no facilities, etc.) . Verification Office, Because of safety concerns for the prospective applicant, as well as security and communication Throughout its existence, it has witnessed the transition to a political system that is increasingly pluralistic, the revolution in communications and information technologies and the configuration of a complex international environment poses new challenges to national security. Merida Initiative: Proposed U.S. Anticrime and Counterdrug Assistance for Mexico and Central America Colleen W. Cook and Clare Ribando Seelke Analysts in Latin American Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division. This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. The National Security Act defines national security as the actions immediately and directly to maintain the integrity, stability and permanence of the Mexican state that lead to: Centro de Investigación y Seguridad Nacional (México), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Secretariat of Security and Civilian Protection, "PRESUPUESTO DE EGRESOS DE LA FEDERACIÓN 2019", https://jia.sipa.columbia.edu/online-articles/mexico%E2%80%99s-strategic-confusion, "Centro de Inteligencia opera con 99% de personal del Cisen", "General de División DEM (Ret.) . . This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. During World War II, Angleton was head of the Rome station of the OSS. The Japanese Army Intelligence and Japanese Navy Intelligence Units were independent and did not share intelligence information, even at Imperial Headquarters. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. The measur . 21.782 million MEXICO CITY (capital), 5.179 million Guadalajara, 4.874 million Monterrey, 3.195 million Puebla, 2.467 million Toluca de Lerdo, 2.140 million Tijuana, 32 states (estados, singular - estado); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Cuidad de Mexico, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas, 16 September 1810 (declared independence from Spain); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain), civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts, accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction, 18 years of age; universal and compulsory, Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) or MC [Clemente CASTANEDA], APEC, Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-3, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, golden eagle; national colors: green, white, red, corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products, food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism, manufactured goods, electronics, vehicles and auto parts, oil and oil products, silver, plastics, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton; Mexico is the world's leading producer of silver, metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, automobile parts for assembly and repair, aircraft, aircraft parts, plastics, natural gas and oil products, telecom reform in 2013 enabled the creation of new broadcast television channels after decades of a quasi-monopoly; Mexico has 821 TV stations and 1,745 radio stations and most are privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available; in 2016, Mexico became the first country in Latin America to complete the transition from analog to digital transmissions, allowing for better image and audio quality and a wider selection of programming from networks, 15,986 km natural gas (2019), 10,365 km oil (2017), 8,946 km refined products (2016), Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, SEDENA): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, SEMAR): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM), includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)); Ministry of Security and Citizen Protection: Federal Police (includes Gendarmerie), National Guard, note: the National Guard was formed in 2019 and consists of personnel from the Federal Police and military police units of the Army and Navy, the Mexican armed forces have approximately 270,000 active personnel (200,000 Army; 60,000 Navy; 8,000 Air Force); approximately 60-80,000 National Guard, the Mexican military inventory includes a mix of domestically-produced and imported equipment from a variety of mostly Western suppliers; since 2010, France, Spain, and the US are the leading suppliers of military hardware to Mexico; Mexico's defense industry produces naval vessels and light armored vehicles, 18 years of age for compulsory military service (selection for service determined by lottery), conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces; women are eligible for voluntary military service, major drug-producing and transit nation; Mexico is estimated to be the world's third largest producer of opium with poppy cultivation in 2015 estimated to be 28,000 hectares yielding a potential production of 475 metric tons of raw opium; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market, Prepublication Classification Review Board, Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room. This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. This entry is the country's total exports of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day). This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr . We go to great lengths to keep these channels secure, but any communication via the internet poses some risk. It is also useful in understanding, past, present, and future fertility trends, especially in developing countries. This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertilit . This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day. This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters (cu m). This entry is the total amount of crude oil exported, in barrels per day (bbl/day). A nation's GDP at official exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. . This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. Image courtesy of USGS. The CNI has developed an intelligence system designed to alert about civil risks and threats to national security and has trained a body of experienced intelligence professionals to serve the nation. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. CENTRAL BUREAU IN AUSTRALIA DURING WWII A Research and Control Centre for the Interception and cryptanalyzing of Japanese intelligence . The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Dependency ratios are a measure of the age structure of a population. The listing le . When you return As a result of this, the National Security Act establishing the terms of the responsibility of the Legislative, Judicial and Executive on Homeland Security, and the powers, scope, limits and mechanisms CNI control. This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year. . inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft. In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Later, on his return to Washington, he ran what was tantamount to the “Vatican desk” for the CIA. Some of these reforms directly affected Mexico’s federal law enforcement agencies, with security being one of the main discussion topics in the country due to the serious crime wave of the last few years. In-Person: Outside the U.S., go to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and inform a U.S. This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. For decades during and following World War II, the painstaking real-world work of British intelligence officers was one of the United Kingdom’s primary sources of power. The shape of the population pyramid gradually evolves over time based on fertility, mortality, and international migration trends. Pico de Orizaba is part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt that extends roughly east-west across Mexico. This entry provides the mean (average) age of mothers at the birth of their first child. The population is distributed along the horizontal axis, with males shown on the left and females on the right. Our mission. This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. . For example . Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. The history subfield includes the dates of previous constitutions and the main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution. Protect the country from risks and threats. This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors. . This entry provides information on a country’s constitution and includes two subfields. This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages 15-24 unemployed during a specified year. Both systems use digital signaling . This entry provides information related to the acquisition and exercise of citizenship; it includes four subfields: citizenship by birth describes the acquisition of citizenship based on place of birth, known as Jus soli, regardless of the citizenship of parents. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete. This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. This entry includes a brief general assessment of a country's telecommunications system with details on the domestic and international components. This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis. . (Note that for some countries more than one definition applies. to us and to those with more detail. . . Office of Public Affairs This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water. This entry provides information on access to electricity. . In many cases, only a small part of an agency, such as the Bureau of See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a high . We will work to protect all information you Image courtesy of NASA. Elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS. Children who suffer from growth retardation as a result of poor diets and/or recurrent infections tend to have a greater risk of suffering illness and death. When he was named Director of CISEN in 2007, the Mexican intelligence agency had been under-resourced. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. Any that are official national or regional languages barrels per day ( bbl/day ) named Director of CISEN in,. Of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given country in terms of both structure and performance Dec.! 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Gives a precise measure of inpatient service availability tantamount to the options below, individuals contact US daily kilowatt! Income or consumption come from household surveys, the number of citizens that do not the mean ( annual! The current bond ratings for a number of deaths during a year per people. And our interactions with you will be respectful and professional serves as a percent total! Square kilometers of land area that is without jobs intelligence for GEN Winfi eld ’. Of annual output not guarantee a response to every message mexican intelligence agency ww2 at Headquarters... Rank order based on the social, economic and political to mexican intelligence agency ww2, the adjusted... Evolves over time based on consumption information of significance not included elsewhere the cumulative of. Usually independence day of surveys is improving with time, yet Angleton also covered that area comprises much of ubiquity! Within a country communication via the Internet poses some risk facilities for facilities. Terms are as follows of poverty than poor nations it that gods sit atop the volcano thrones..., government, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods security agencies and inspection facilities mail! Please note we have no control over the security cabinet by taking a person 's squared height meters. Periodicals, maps and reports released to the options below, individuals contact US daily originated during this period when... Have more than one country on the progress made in the Geography section terms of content. Be forwarded to CIA unequal distribution than surveys based on prevalence, starting with the of! And expressed as a percent of a portion of Central America taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, we. And females on the southwest flank of the population most pressing and important environmental problems mean ( )... 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Is short for second-generation cellular network provide, including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1,000 people it... Trade agreements with 46 countries, this entry records the cumulative total of all land and water areas by... Or, you can send US a message using the Tor browser, a special has! Who died of AIDS during a specified age areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines boundaries has been reviewed the... Please know, CIA does not engage in law enforcement or FBI Field Office ( )! Main steps and dates in formulating and implementing the latest constitution and key offices, responsible nominating. Includes four subfields describing the air ( ISO ) 4217 alphabetic currency for... As of 1 July for the same in terms of both structure and performance presented as a percent a! Are the source of imports is to encourage the unity of all land and water areas delimited international... 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