[165], Krugman identifies as a Keynesian[166][167] and a saltwater economist,[168] and he has criticized the freshwater school on macroeconomics. [32] Krugman was President of the Eastern Economic Association in 2010. That is, NTT implies that instead of spreading out evenly around the world, production will tend to concentrate in a few countries, regions, or cities, which will become densely populated but will also have higher levels of income. He retired from Princeton in June 2015, and holds the title of professor emeritus there. Il est aussi le promoteur de la « troisième génération » des modèles de crise de change qui attribue aux engagements en devises non couverts le rôle catalyseur des crises et même des contagions. "[158] In particular, he considered the Obama administration's actions to prop up the US financial system in 2009 to be impractical and unduly favorable to Wall Street bankers. Paul Krugman is teaching what?!? Krugman's support for free trade in the 1980s–1990s provoked some ire from the anti-globalization movement. "[123], Krugman's columns have drawn criticism as well as praise. Il admet également que le déficit commercial a été préjudiciable au secteur manufacturier américain : "Il ne fait aucun doute que l'augmentation des importations, en particulier en provenance de Chine, a réduit l'emploi dans le secteur manufacturier..., l'élimination complète du déficit commercial américain dans le secteur des produits manufacturés ajouterait environ deux millions d'emplois dans ce secteur[45]. "[143] Krugman more recently pointed out that emergency capital controls have even been endorsed by the IMF, and are no longer considered radical policy. "[174] Post-Keynesian observers cite commonalities between Krugman's views and those of the Post-Keynesian school,[175][176][177] although Krugman has been critical of some Post-Keynesian economists such as John Kenneth Galbraith – whose works The New Industrial State (1967) and Economics in Perspective (1987) Krugman has referred to as not "real economic theory" and "remarkably ill-informed" respectively. [47] In Krugman's own words, the passage from NTT to NEG was "obvious in retrospect; but it certainly took me a while to see it. Economist Krugman Wins Nobel Prize in Economics, "Sources of international friction and cooperation in high-technology development and trade." In this period Krugman critiqued various positions commonly taken on economic issues from across the political spectrum, from protectionism and opposition to the World Trade Organization on the left to supply-side economics on the right. Concernant ses articles consacrés à la Grande-Bretagne, Ferguson lui reproche une « partisanerie extrême complétée par un niveau touristique de connaissance »[48]. And we're, you know . [42] Nonetheless, trade remains beneficial in general, even between similar countries, because it permits firms to save on costs by producing at a larger, more efficient scale, and because it increases the range of brands available and sharpens the competition between firms. Krugman wrote that these policies were unsustainable in the long run and would eventually generate a major economic crisis. [160] Jeremy Warner of The Daily Telegraph accused Krugman of advocating a return to self-destructive protectionism. Prior to Krugman's work, trade theory (see David Ricardo and Heckscher–Ohlin model) emphasized trade based on the comparative advantage of countries with very different characteristics, such as a country with a high agricultural productivity trading agricultural products for industrial products from a country with a high industrial productivity. "[109] In a review for The New York Times, Pulitzer prize-winning historian David M. Kennedy stated, "Like the rants of Rush Limbaugh or the films of Michael Moore, Krugman's shrill polemic may hearten the faithful, but it will do little to persuade the unconvinced". The Nobel Prize Committee stated that Krugman's main contribution is his analysis of the effects of economies of scale, combined with the assumption that consumers appreciate diversity, on international trade and on the location of economic activity. Together, Krugman and his wife have collaborated on several economics textbooks. Dans The Age of Diminished Expectations et The Conscience of a Liberal[32], il écrit en particulier sur la croissante inégalité des revenus engendrée par la « nouvelle économie » américaine des années 1990. Ronald Reagan ’s Council of Economic Advisers and again for a hiatus (1994–96) to teach at Stanford University . Il pense donc que les droits de douane et les restrictions commerciales peuvent réellement réduire le déficit commercial global. Gerald Loeb Award winners for Columns, Commentary, and_Editorials, Académie américaine des arts et des sciences, « Le Nobel d'économie est décerné à l'Américain Paul Krugman ». Krugman is the author or editor of 27 books, including scholarly works, textbooks, and books for a more general audience, and has published over 200 scholarly articles in professional journals and edited volumes. "[68] The proposal appeared first in a web posting on his academic site. "[230], "Krugman" redirects here. [75] In response to economists who point out that the Japanese economy recovered despite not pursuing his policy prescriptions, Krugman maintains that it was an export-led boom that pulled Japan out of its economic slump in the late-90s, rather than reforms of the financial system. Pour ce faire, il proposera au président Barack Obama qu'il est préférable de « pécher par excès que par défaut[29]». – Krugman: Reliably wrong in his forecasts.] Encouraged, Krugman worked on it and later wrote, "[I] knew within a few hours that I had the key to my whole career in hand". Paul Krugman a reçu le prix Nobel d’économie en 2008. Paul Krugman will transfer to emeritus status at the end of the current academic year, after spending 15 years on the Princeton faculty. . [28], Krugman later praised his PhD thesis advisor, Rudi Dornbusch, as "one of the great economics teachers of all time" and said that he "had the knack of inspiring students to pick up his enthusiasm and technique, but find their own paths". [210] He has also praised the former British Prime Minister, whom he described as "more impressive than any US politician" after a three-hour conversation with him. He also notes that increasing returns and strategic trade theory do not disprove the underlying truth of comparative advantage. This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 04:19. According to the formal offer letter, Krugman’s prime job won’t be teaching. Krugman argued that the tax cuts enlarged the budget deficit without improving the economy, and that they enriched the wealthy – worsening income distribution in the US. [142] Krugman later stated that the controls might not have been necessary at the time they were applied, but that nevertheless "Malaysia has proved a point – namely, that controlling capital in a crisis is at least feasible. His first wife, Robin L. Bergman, is a designer. The Research Papers in Economics project ranks him among the world's most influential economists. ». More financial support for college. À la fin des années 1980, il va s'intéresser aux zones-objectifs monétaires. Il écrit, en particulier, page xxvi de son livre The Great Unraveling que « j’ai encore la lettre pleine de colère que Ralph Nader m’a adressée quand j’ai critiqué son attaque sur la mondialisation. Il est coauteur avec Maurice Obstfeld de International Economics: Theory and Policy, le livre de cours le plus utilisé dans ce domaine aux États-Unis, ainsi que d'une vingtaine d'autres ouvrages. The home market effect "states that, ceteris paribus, the country with the larger demand for a good shall, at equilibrium, produce a more than proportionate share of that good and be a net exporter of it. He cited a paper by Andrei Shleifer and Robert Vishny released the previous week, which concludes that most innovation was in fact about "providing investors with false substitutes for [traditional] assets like bank deposits," and once investors realize the sheer number of securities that are unsafe a "flight to safety" occurs which necessarily leads to "financial fragility. When I argue with them in my column this is a serious discussion. Krugman est un économiste influent dans le domaine de la finance internationale et de la macroéconomie internationale. Paul Robin Krugman (/ˈkrʊɡmən/ (listen) KRUUG-mən;[3][4] born February 28, 1953)[5] is an American economist who is the Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times. Five days after 9/11 terrorist attacks, Krugman argued in his column that calamity was "partly self-inflicted" due to transfer of responsibility for airport security from government to airlines. Krugman argued that in the long term, only increasing total factor productivity can lead to sustained economic growth. In 2007, Krugman published The Conscience of a Liberal, whose title refers to Barry Goldwater's Conscience of a Conservative. These forces act upon one another simultaneously, producing manufacturing and population agglomeration. "[49], The "home market effect" that Krugman discovered in NTT also features in NEG, which interprets agglomeration "as the outcome of the interaction of increasing returns, trade costs and factor price differences. Et le déficit commercial ne serait pas dû à l'absence de protection commerciale mais au manque d'épargne nationale[36]. À la suite de ses travaux, Krugman avec Helpman, Barbara Spencer et James Brander ont étendu la théorie des rendements croissants au plan normatif pour déboucher sur la théorie de la politique commerciale stratégique[20]. He began taking an interest in economics when he began reading Isaac Asimov’s Foundation novels. He is also currently Centenary Professor at the London School of Economics, and a member of the Group of Thirty international economic body. Krugman states that manufacturing's geographical range is inherently limited by economies of scale, but also that manufacturing will establish and accrue itself in an area of high demand. from Businessworld February 8, 2008, "The myth of decoupling," Sebastien Walti, February 2009. La plupart des modèles de la théorie du commerce international incluent l’idée de Krugman et comprennent des économies d'échelle dans la production et un penchant pour la diversité dans la consommation. Il demande un droit de douane de 25 p. 100 sur les produits chinois. [138] His article helped popularize the argument made by Lawrence Lau and Alwyn Young, among others, that the growth of economies in East Asia was not the result of new and original economic models, but rather from high capital investment and increasing labor force participation, and that total factor productivity had not increased. Il a enseigné à l'université de Yale, à Stanford et au MIT. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec … [58] Within days of its appearance, it was being discussed on some popular economics-oriented blogs. [199] In 2003, he questioned the usefulness of NASA's manned space flights given the available technology and their high financial cost compared to their general benefits. . Il a repris et popularisé le terme de Grande compression, inventé par Claudia Goldin et Robert Margo, décrivant la compression des écarts de revenus aux États-Unis intervenu à la fin des années 1930 et début des années 1940. [164], In a 2014 review of Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century he stated we are in a Second Gilded Age. [108] In a 2009 Newsweek article, Evan Thomas described Krugman as having "all the credentials of a ranking member of the East coast liberal establishment" but also as someone who is anti-establishment, a "scourge of the Bush administration", and a critic of the Obama administration. In the book, he discusses the failure of the United States regulatory system to keep pace with a financial system increasingly out-of-control, and the causes of and possible ways to contain the greatest financial crisis since the 1930s. "[140] Malaysia was the only country that adopted such controls, and although the Malaysian government credited its rapid economic recovery on currency controls, the relationship is disputed. A "briefing book" on the major policy issues around the economy. "[120] Partly as a result, Krugman's twice-weekly column on the Op-Ed page of The New York Times has made him, according to Nicholas Confessore, "the most important political columnist in America ... he is almost alone in analyzing the most important story in politics in recent years – the seamless melding of corporate, class, and political party interests at which the Bush administration excels. Face à des économies d’échelle dans la sphère de production, une économie peut se retrouver « coincée » dans des termes inégaux de l'échange[18]. Their work argues that during a debt-driven slump, the "paradox of toil", together with the paradox of flexibility, can exacerbate a liquidity trap, reducing demand and employment.[179]. Dans un éditorial publié en 2016, avant que Donald Trump ne parvienne à la Maison Blanche, il écrit : « Si Trump est élu, l'économie américaine va s'écrouler et les marchés financiers ne vont jamais s'en remettre »[11]. [14] He has also written several hundred columns on economic and political issues for The New York Times, Fortune and Slate. Krugman claimed that these efforts could lead the global economy into the early stages of a "third depression" and leave "millions of lives blighted by the absence of jobs." [69], Krugman had argued in The Return of Depression Economics that Japan was in a liquidity trap in the late 1990s, since the central bank could not drop interest rates any lower to escape economic stagnation. [204], Krugman endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the run-up for the 2016 U.S. presidential election.[205]. 14 avril 2018. Sur son blog, il écrira par analogie « Ça y est, l’Amérique est devenue le Japon »[28]. • (en) Paul Krugman, The Conscience of a Liberal, Norton, 2007 [27] While at MIT, he was part of a small group of MIT students sent to work for the Central Bank of Portugal for three months in the summer of 1976, during the chaotic aftermath of the Carnation Revolution. [6] In 2008, Krugman was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to New Trade Theory and New Economic Geography. [8] The importance of spatial issues in economics has been enhanced by Krugman's ability to popularize this complicated theory with the help of easy-to-read books and state-of-the-art syntheses. Le prix n'est ici pas attribué à un journaliste mais à un chroniqueur, Paul Krugman étant un contempteur infatigable du président dans les colonnes du New York Times[51]. Il écrira cependant, dans un article de 1987 intitulé Le libre-échange est-il dépassé ?, que le libre-échange avait « irrémédiablement perdu son innocence » et qu’il ne pouvait « jamais être présenté comme une politique dont la théorie économique nous dit que c’est toujours la bonne. Il s'y est illustré comme l'un des critiques les plus virulents du Parti républicain en général, de George W. Bush en particulier et de la « grande divergence »[9], l'accroissement des inégalités des revenus et des fortunes. Il est l'un des fondateurs des « nouvelles théories du commerce international » et a grandement contribué au renouveau de la théorie des crises de change. Dans les années 1990, ses travaux s’orientent vers le grand public et la publication de livres de vulgarisation sur des thèmes qu’il considère comme importants. If you hear that ‘everyone’ supports a policy, whether it's a war of choice or fiscal austerity, you should ask whether ‘everyone’ has been defined to exclude anyone expressing a different opinion. Et le déficit commercial serait donc dû à l'absence de protection contre la Chine, qui manipule sa monnaie, et non à l'absence d'épargne nationale[37],[38]. Read the latest Education News headlines, brought to you daily from Ireland's Definitive Brand of Quality News. [10] In February 2014, he announced that he would be retiring from Princeton in June 2015 and that he would be joining the faculty at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York.[33]. [116] Paul Krugman has written extensively on international economics, including international trade, economic geography, and international finance. Paul Krugman est professeur d'économie à l'université de Princeton. Il est professeur d’économie à l’Université de Princeton, où il enseigne régulièrement le cours sur les principes de l’économie. Paul Krugman: Learn to stop worrying and love debt. "Krugman was beyond doubt the key player in 'placing geographical analysis squarely in the economic mainstream' ... and in conferring it the central role it now assumes."[36]. For the surname, see, Gerald Loeb Award for Editorials (1970–1972), Gerald Loeb Award for Columns/Editorial (1973–1976, 1978–1982), Gerald Loeb Award for Editorial/Commentary (1984), Gerald Loeb Award for Commentary (1985–2020), Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Note: Krugman modeled a 'preference for diversity' by assuming a, Interview, U.S. [41] Krugman points out that although globalization has been positive on a whole, since the 1980s the process known as hyper-globalization has at least played a part in rising inequality. "[36] The home market effect was an unexpected result, and Krugman initially questioned it, but ultimately concluded that the mathematics of the model were correct. [150][151] In addition, he was against Bush's proposal to privatize social security. Everybody knows . Krugman has criticized the Republican Party leadership for what he sees as a strategic (but largely tacit) reliance on racial divisions. The note was soon being cited in papers (draft and published) by other economists,[61] even though it had not itself been through ordinary peer review processes. [120], During the 1992 presidential campaign, Krugman praised Bill Clinton's economic plan in The New York Times, and Clinton's campaign used some of Krugman's work on income inequality. Ferguson, dans une série d'articles et d'entretiens en 2013, avait pointé du doigt les multiples erreurs d'analyse et de prédiction que Paul Krugman a effectuées dans sa carrière, remettant en cause sa compétence. Krugman points to Greenspan and Gramm for the key roles they played in keeping derivatives, financial markets, and investment banks unregulated, and to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, which repealed Great Depression era safeguards that prevented commercial banks, investment banks and insurance companies from merging. Il tient une tribune depuis 1999 dans le New York Times ce qui lui a permis de devenir un « faiseur d'opinion »[1]. Paul Krugman, the left-wing economist who writes for the New York Times, is excited about the coming “Biden Boom” that will follow, he explains, the rollout of a COVID-19 vaccine. At the time, it was considered likely that Clinton would offer him a position in the new administration, but allegedly Krugman's volatility and outspokenness caused Clinton to look elsewhere. This suggests that the administration's money-for-nothing financial policy will eventually deplete its political capital. [113] In his review of Conscience of a Liberal, the liberal journalist and author Michael Tomasky credited Krugman with a commitment "to accurate history even when some fudging might be in order for the sake of political expediency. Wallace-Wells, Benjamin. [186], After the 2016 elections, and Trump's moves towards protectionism, he wrote that while protectionism can make economies less efficient and reduce long-term growth, it would not directly cause recessions. Population will increase in these areas due to the more highly developed infrastructure and nearby production, therefore lowering the expense of goods, while economies of scale provide varied choices of goods and services. "[183][184] However, Krugman argues in the same article that, given the findings of New Trade Theory, "[free trade] has shifted from optimum to reasonable rule of thumb ... it can never again be asserted as the policy that economic theory tells us is always right." MIT's Rise to Prominence: Outline of a Collective Biography. A 2003 article in The Economist[124] questioned Krugman's "growing tendency to attribute all the world's ills to George Bush", citing critics who felt that "his relentless partisanship is getting in the way of his argument" and claiming errors of economic and political reasoning in his columns. [16] His popular commentary has attracted widespread attention and comments, both positive and negative. PAUL KRUGMAN’S EDUCATION AND PROFESSIONAL LIFE EDUCATIONAL LIFE Paul … "[122], In 1999, near the height of the dot com boom, The New York Times approached Krugman to write a bi-weekly column on "the vagaries of business and economics in an age of prosperity. The only good news was that nobody else picked up that $100 bill lying on the sidewalk in the interim. Si le commerce est grandement conditionné par des rendements d'échelle, alors les régions économiques avec le plus de production vont devenir plus compétitives et attirer plus d’entreprises. Paul R. Krugman BORN: February 28, 1953 EDUCATION: B.A., Yale University 1974 Ph.D., MIT 1977 EMPLOYMENT Yale University - Assistant Professor, September 1977 - June 1980 Visiting Assistant Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September 1979 - June 1980 Associate Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, July 1980 - June 1984 Council of Economic Advisers - … Paul Krugman poursuit une longue polémique médiatique débutée en 2009 avec l'historien britannique Niall Ferguson reprochant à ce dernier « une déformation des faits » et des « erreurs fondamentales »[47]. This drives down prices, putting pressure on the balance sheets of other HLIs, and so on." [44][45] He has also been critical of industrial policy, which New Trade Theory suggests might offer nations rent-seeking advantages if "strategic industries" can be identified, saying it's not clear that such identification can be done accurately enough to matter. La crise économique asiatique de 1997 a validé ces prédictions. Economist J. Peter Neary has noted that Krugman "has written on a wide range of topics, always combining one of the best prose styles in the profession with an ability to construct elegant, insightful and useful models. Économie internationale 10e édition Paul Krugman, université de Princeton Maurice Obstfeld, université de Californie, Berkeley Marc Melitz, université Harvard Adaptation française par : Gunther Capelle-Blancard, université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne Matthieu Crozet, université Paris-Sud Eco-Int-Prelims_NH.indd 1 16/03/2017 17:42 En effet, dans une guerre commerciale, puisque les exportations et les importations diminueront de façon égale, pour l'ensemble du monde, l'effet négatif d'une baisse des exportations sera compensé par l'effet expansionniste d'une baisse des importations. Krugman modeled a 'preference for diversity' by assuming a CES utility function like that in a 1977 paper by Avinash Dixit and Joseph Stiglitz. [15] As a commentator, Krugman has written on a wide range of economic issues including income distribution, taxation, macroeconomics, and international economics. Coy, Peter. [171][172][173], In the wake of the 2007–2009 financial crisis he has remarked that he is "gravitating towards a Keynes-Fisher-Minsky view of macroeconomics. [222] She, as did Krugman, taught at MIT. In 2012, Krugman published End This Depression Now!, a book which argues that looking at the available historical economic data, fiscal cuts and austerity measures only deprive the economy of valuable funds that can circulate and further add to a poor economy – people cannot spend, and markets cannot thrive if there is not enough consumption and there cannot be sufficient consumption if there is large unemployment. Cochrane. [46], It took an interval of eleven years, but ultimately Krugman's work on New Trade Theory (NTT) converged to what is usually called the "new economic geography" (NEG), which Krugman began to develop in a seminal 1991 paper, "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography", published in the Journal of Political Economy. Well-known member. Le déclin du commerce entre 1929 et 1933 "était presque entièrement une conséquence de la Dépression, et non une cause". [88] Daniel Okrent, a former The New York Times ombudsman, in his farewell column, criticized Krugman for what he said was "the disturbing habit of shaping, slicing and selectively citing numbers in a fashion that pleases his acolytes but leaves him open to substantive assaults."[125][126]. So that's where I'm pushing. Cette logique explique pourquoi il y a spécialisation par marque au lieu de spécialisation par produit. In the 1990s, besides academic books and textbooks, Krugman increasingly began writing books for a general audience on issues he considered important for public policy. I was then and still am an unabashed defender of the welfare state, which I regard as the most decent social arrangement yet devised. Paul Krugman was born on the 28 th of February 1953 in Albany, New York, the U.S., to parents, Anita and David Krugman. [131] Later, Krugman wrote an article which accused Sanders of "[going] for easy slogans over hard thinking" and attacking Hillary Clinton in a way that was "just plain dishonest".[132]. Such a rapid contagion had hitherto been considered unlikely because of "decoupling" in a globalized economy. Today both Peter Wood and Jason Fertig observed that Paul Krugman, whom Peter calls one of the "stalwarts of the left," has gone on record to doubt the value of the college degree as the best path to prosperity for the majority of Americans. [112], In his book, Krugman proposed a "new New Deal", which included placing more emphasis on social and medical programs and less on national defense. [59][60] [215] His criticisms have included the president's climate change proposals, economic policy,[216] the Republican tax plan and Trump's foreign policy initiatives. [108] It details the history of wealth and income gaps in the United States in the 20th century. Il faut un véritable plan de relance massif[30]. In 1922, his paternal grandparents immigrated to the United States from Brest, Belarus, at that time a part of Poland. "[77][78][79] La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 5 octobre 2020 à 09:17. Il se fait l’avocat d’une politique budgétaire agressive pour contrecarrer la dépression qui frappe l’économie du Japon argumentant que le pays se trouve dans une trappe à liquidité[26]. "[28] Krugman found the time "thrilling, then disillusioning". [70] The core of Krugman's policy proposal for addressing Japan's liquidity trap was inflation targeting, which, he argued "most nearly approaches the usual goal of modern stabilization policy, which is to provide adequate demand in a clean, unobtrusive way that does not distort the allocation of resources. A 2011 survey of economics professors named him their favorite living economist under the age of 60. In the midst of the 2009 Great Recession, Krugman made a significant departure from his general support for free trade, entertaining the idea of a 25% tariff on Chinese imports as a retaliation for China's policy of maintaining a low value for the renminbi, which many saw as hostile currency manipulation, artificially making their exports more competitive. 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