While their behavior and neurobiology have been extensively studied, most research is based on observations of just a handful of the more than 300 species of octopus worldwide. [128][129], Ancient seafaring people were aware of the octopus, as evidenced by certain artworks and designs. The larger Pacific striped octopus is an exception, as it can reproduce multiple times over a life of around two years. [27], The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting largely of collagen fibres and various cells allowing colour change. It contains tetrodotoxin, which causes paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. Basal species, the Cirrina, have stout gelatinous bodies with webbing that reaches near the tip of their arms, and two large fins above the eyes, supported by an internal shell. It has a distinctively white pupil that has led the species to be known also as the Gloomy Octopus. [50] Researchers believe that opsins in the skin can sense different wavelengths of light and help the creatures choose a coloration that camouflages them, in addition to light input from the eyes. In most species, fertilisation occurs in the mantle cavity. [24][25] The bulbous and hollow mantle is fused to the back of the head and is known as the visceral hump; it contains most of the vital organs. Before reaching the branchial heart, each branch of the vena cava expands to form renal appendages which are in direct contact with the thin-walled nephridium. [79] Major items in the diet of the giant Pacific octopus include bivalve molluscs such as the cockle Clinocardium nuttallii, clams and scallops and crustaceans such as crabs and spider crabs. [34] In addition, the internal shell of incirrates is either present as a pair of stylets or absent altogether. Another diver recorded the encounter on video. See more ideas about Octopus, Pacific, Octopus species. The giant Pacific octopus is considered to be long-lived compared to other species, with lifespans typically 3–5 years in the wild. [65], The eggs have large yolks; cleavage (division) is superficial and a germinal disc develops at the pole. [104] The blue rings of the highly venomous blue-ringed octopus are hidden in muscular skin folds which contract when the animal is threatened, exposing the iridescent warning. [3][4][5] The standard pluralised form of "octopus" in English is "octopuses";[6] the Ancient Greek plural ὀκτώποδες, "octopodes" (/ɒkˈtɒpədiːz/), has also been used historically. Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. The blood vessels consist of arteries, capillaries and veins and are lined with a cellular endothelium which is quite unlike that of most other invertebrates. Southern New England is the northern extent of this creature's range—and in North Atlantic waters, these adaptable invertebrates generally grow to 24-36 inches and have a natural lifespan of 12-18 months. Abdopus aculeatus mostly lives in near-shore seagrass beds. The search for the origin of life: From panspermia to primordial soup. Dr. Arcadio Rodaniche initially mentioned the species in a paper back in 1977 and published a … It has been proposed that the naturally short lifespan may be functional to prevent rapid overpopulation. [55], The arms contain tension sensors so the octopus knows whether its arms are stretched out, but this is not sufficient for the brain to determine the position of the octopus's body or arms. [123] Octopuses have eight limbs like other coleoids but lack the extra specialised feeding appendages known as tentacles which are longer and thinner with suckers only at their club-like ends. You can also become a Supporter for just $50/year to remove all ads and gain access to our Supporters forum. Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. The suckers allow the octopus to anchor itself or to manipulate objects. [56], The ink sac of an octopus is located under the digestive gland. Around 300 species are recognised, and the order is grouped within the class Cephalopoda with squids, cuttlefish, and nautiloids. [63]:75, In laboratory experiments, octopuses can be readily trained to distinguish between different shapes and patterns. The closely related Lesser Pacific Striped Octopus. The female Larger Pacific Striped Octopus is iteroparous meaning that she lays and broods many clutches of eggs over her lifetime. [27] Food is broken down and is forced into the oesophagus by two lateral extensions of the esophageal side walls in addition to the radula. [14], The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is often cited as the largest known octopus species. [151] The world catch peaked in 2007 at 380,000 tons, and fell by a tenth by 2012. [45][46] It has a highly complex nervous system, only part of which is localised in its brain, which is contained in a cartilaginous capsule. [22], Some species differ in form from the typical octopus body shape. Larger Pacific Striped Octopus taps its prey on the shoulder and startles it into its arms. The pupil can be adjusted in size and a retinal pigment screens incident light in bright conditions. Moderator. [122] Octopuses are mostly soft tissue, and so fossils are relatively rare. 66% of Enteroctopus dofleini in one study had scars, with 50% having amputated arms. Only two or three giant Pacific octopus paralarvae will live to reproduce. The octopus can change its color pattern from a deep red hue to a wacky combination of stripes and spots (Image credit: Richard Ross). Larger Pacific Striped Octopuses mate in a beak-to-beak position, as if kissing. [27] Lacking skeletal support, the arms work as muscular hydrostats and contain longitudinal, transverse and circular muscles around a central axial nerve. For example, a stone carving found in the archaeological recovery from Bronze Age Minoan Crete at Knossos (1900–1100 BC) has a depiction of a fisherman carrying an octopus. [87] Some species of octopus can crawl out of the water briefly, which they may do between tide pools while hunting crustaceans or gastropods or to escape predators. [42] The radula is a spiked, muscular tongue-like organ with multiple rows of tiny teeth. 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The larger Pacific striped octopus is an exception, as it can reproduce multiple times over a life of around two years. [104] Octopuses typically hide or disguise themselves by camouflage and mimicry; some have conspicuous warning coloration (aposematism) or deimatic behaviour. The scientific Latin term octopus was derived from Ancient Greek ὀκτώπους, a compound form of ὀκτώ (oktō, "eight") and πούς (pous, "foot"), itself a variant form of ὀκτάπους, a word used for example by Alexander of Tralles (c. 525–605) for the common octopus. When the octopus is approached, it may extend an arm to investigate. [16] Much larger sizes have been claimed for the giant Pacific octopus:[17] one specimen was recorded as 272 kg (600 lb) with an arm span of 9 m (30 ft). [138] [40] Water flow over the gills correlates with locomotion, and an octopus can propel its body when it expels water out of its siphon. [106] Displays are often reinforced by stretching out the animal's arms, fins or web to make it look as big and threatening as possible. [152] Methods to capture octopuses include pots, traps, trawls, snares, drift fishing, spearing, hooking and hand collection. [35][36] [93] The veined octopus collects discarded coconut shells, then uses them to build a shelter, an example of tool use. Feb 19, 2019 - Explore Karen Glover's board "Pacific Striped Octopus" on Pinterest. [113] The Dicyemidae are a family of tiny worms that are found in the renal appendages of many species;[114] it is unclear whether they are parasitic or are endosymbionts. This moves the body slowly. Coleoids rely mostly on ADAR enzymes for RNA editing, which requires large double-stranded RNA structures to flank the editing sites. [148][149] Bites have been recorded from captive octopuses of other species; they leave swellings which disappear in a day or two. For example, a 2.4-metre (8 ft) Pacific octopus, said to be nearly perfectly camouflaged, "lunged" at a diver and "wrangled" over his camera before it let go. The tract consists of a crop, where the food is stored; a stomach, where food is ground down; a caecum where the now sludgy food is sorted into fluids and particles and which plays an important role in absorption; the digestive gland, where liver cells break down and absorb the fluid and become "brown bodies"; and the intestine, where the accumulated waste is turned into faecal ropes by secretions and blown out of the funnel via the rectum. While most octopuses die right after they finish laying the eggs, the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus females lives longer and can produce multiple batches. [2] The Octopoda consists of around 300 known species[118] and were historically divided into two suborders, the Incirrina and the Cirrina. When it is resting after a meal, absorption through the skin can drop to 3% of its total oxygen uptake. [35][36][37] In cold conditions with low oxygen levels, haemocyanin transports oxygen more efficiently than haemoglobin. Octopuses, squids and cuttlefish belong to the clade Coleoidea. Videos of over 200 science talks plus weekly crosswords available exclusively to subscribers, Exclusive access to subscriber-only events. [88][89] "Stilt walking" is used by the veined octopus when carrying stacked coconut shells. [116], The scientific name Octopoda was first coined and given as the order of octopuses in 1818 by English biologist William Elford Leach,[117] who classified them as Octopoida the previous year. The discovery of an apparently social species was so implausible that few believed it and Rodaniche’s story passed into legend. [90][99][100], Octopuses use camouflage when hunting and to avoid predators. It is able to grasp objects such as a metal tube, a magazine, or a ball, and to fill a glass by pouring water from a bottle. [34] However, more recent evidence suggests that Cirrina are merely the most basal species and are not a unique clade. Octopuses have an innate immune system, and the haemocytes respond to infection by phagocytosis, encapsulation, infiltration or cytotoxic activities to destroy or isolate the pathogens. Males become senescent and die a few weeks after mating. Both the structures and editing sites are conserved in the coleoid genome and the mutation rates for the sites are severely hampered. [58] Cirrate octopuses lack the ink sac. The Hawaiian day octopus (Octopus cyanea) lives on coral reefs; argonauts drift in pelagic waters. Science with Sam explains. [59][60], When octopuses reproduce, the male uses a specialised arm called a hectocotylus to transfer spermatophores (packets of sperm) from the terminal organ of the reproductive tract (the cephalopod "penis") into the female's mantle cavity. The Larger Pacific Striped Octopus was discovered in 1991, but it was largely forgotten for more than a decade. [29][30], The interior surfaces of the arms are covered with circular, adhesive suckers. [70]:276–277 Experimental removal of both optic glands after spawning was found to result in the cessation of broodiness, the resumption of feeding, increased growth, and greatly extended lifespans. [168], Some robotics research is exploring biomimicry of octopus features. [8][9], Fowler's Modern English Usage states that the only acceptable plural in English is "octopuses", that "octopi" is misconceived, and "octopodes" pedantic;[10][11][12] the latter is nonetheless used frequently enough to be acknowledged by the descriptivist Merriam-Webster 11th Collegiate Dictionary and Webster's New World College Dictionary. The crawling arm may distract would-be predators. The Common Sydney Octopus is one of the largest species of the area with an arm span that can reach up to 2 meters! [143][144], Since it has numerous arms emanating from a common centre, the octopus is often used as a symbol for a powerful and manipulative organisation. The blood circulates through the aorta and capillary system, to the vena cavae, after which the blood is pumped through the gills by the auxiliary hearts and back to the main heart. The octopus has two nephridia (equivalent to vertebrate kidneys) which are associated with the branchial hearts; these and their associated ducts connect the pericardial cavities with the mantle cavity. To do this they use specialised skin cells which change the appearance of the skin by adjusting its colour, opacity, or reflectivity. The systemic heart is inactive when the animal is swimming and thus it tires quickly and prefers to crawl. [82], Some species have other modes of feeding. They can extend and contract, twist to left or right, bend at any place in any direction or be held rigid. [107], Once they have been seen by a predator, they commonly try to escape but can also use distraction with an ink cloud ejected from the ink sac. [68], Octopuses have a relatively short life expectancy; some species live for as little as six months. 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